Ecosystem Effects of Fishing: Impacts, Metrics, and Management Strategies
In its series of three meetings, WGECO devoted considerable attention to the issue of Ecological Quality Objectives and Precautionary Reference Points for ecosystem properties. As this work progressed, the context in which the deliberations were held also changed. The issue of Ecosystem Objectives evolved from a domain of conceptual thinking, to very practical evaluation of candidate ecosystem objectives, indicators, and reference points. The consequences of the work done by WGECO are reflected clearly in the Bergen Declaration, adopted in March 2002. Both concepts and choices of wording in relevant parts of the Declaration, particularly Annex 3, show the strong influence of the preparations done by WGECO.