Martin Knudsen - the oceanographer
reportposted on 2022-03-01, 12:41 authored by J. Smed
Martin Knudsen was introduced to hydrography (i.e., physical oceanography) when, at a young age, he was appointed to undertake the physical and chemical investigations on the Danish "Ingolf" expedition in 1895 and 1896 to the waters around Iceland and western Greenland. He was a Danish Delegate to the Stockholm Conference, which entrusted him with the task of an experimental revision of the existing hydro- graphical tables. This work resulted in Knudsen’s Hydrographical Tables, used the world over for three-quarters of a century. Knudsen introduced the use of standard seawater for salinity determinations, and was in charge of the Standard Seawater Service from 1908 to 1948. He designed new versions of instruments, such as burettes, pipettes, reversing thermometers, water bottles, and bottom samplers. Knudsen was attached to ICES Headquarters from 1902 to 1948 in various capacities: Hydrographical Assistant, editor, Hydrographic Consultant, and Chef du Service Hydrographique. He was a Danish Delegate to the Council during 1902-1947, Vice- President during 1933-1947, and Chair of the Hydrography Committee from its establishment in 1925 until 1947.