ICES Marine Science Symposia - Volume 215 - 2002 - Part 08 of 70.pdf (3.99 MB)
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Finland and ICES: K. M. Levander and the origins of hydrobiological studies

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posted on 2022-03-01, 12:46 authored by S. Laakkonen
The history of marine science in the Baltic Sea region is a new and little-studied field. There are hardly any international or national presentations of even the main branches of marine studies. The most neglected approach, however, is the study o f science in the context of society. Therefore, it is difficult to provide answers concerning the history o f ICES and its Member Countries. Due to the lack of historical research, critical questions concerning the relationship between Finland and ICES also remain to be answered. Why did Finland, a semi-autonomous part of Imperial Russia in 1809-1917, join ICES? What were the aims and interest of the local government? How was the scientific base enabling the development of later marine studies created? How did marine science develop in comparison with other relevant fields of science? What benefits did cooperation with ICES bring to Finland? Owing to the lack of previous studies, the paper focuses on one person, Professor K. M. Levander, who participated in Finnish marine studies from the very beginning in 1898 until World War II. The development of hydrobiological studies of open sea areas is compared with the development of other fields of biological study of water courses. It is suggested that, in order to explain the development o f marine science, their history should be studied in the context o f society, for example, from the point o f view of national strategic interests.



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[Authors]. 2002. Finland and ICES: K. M. Levander and the origins of hydrobiological studies. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 215.